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The Functions of an Exhaust System
In modern times, most people have driven or ridden in a vehicle. With automobiles, the debates of pollution and sound become alive. But, sometimes both of these can be down to the car itself. In this article, the goal is to help with a common question: “How Does an Exhaust System Work?”. Well, the exhaust begins with four main functions. These functions are:
- Direct Fumes Away from Cabin & Passengers
- Improve Fuel Consumption (MPG)
- Improve Performance (HP/TQ)
- Noise Amplification or Reduction (Usually Reduction)
With the exhaust handling these functions, its purpose is quite diverse. While it keeps passengers from breathing harmful gases, it also can add power and improve fuel consumption. Furthermore, all exhausts have a tone… hence noise is amplified or reduced via the muffler or silencer design. Finally, the layout of an exhaust system can depend on engine size, manufacturer, and/or model.
Control of Toxic Gases
When asking “How Does an Exhaust System Work?”, the concept of exhaust emissions comes into play. When an engine runs, it produces a total of 6 gases as emissions. Unfortunately, 3 of these gases are toxic: carbon monoxide, nitrogen monoxide, and nitrogen oxide. So, an entire design arrives around this to attempt to minimize the release of these gases into the atmosphere. Also, it obviously works to keep these gases away from the driver or passengers of the car. These gases are dangerous and can be harmful to animals, the environment, people, and plants.
How Do Emissions Exit the Car?
Again, when asking “How Does an Exhaust System Work?”, the gas must be filtered in some manner, correct? Right! First, the exhaust manifold collects gas from the cylinder head acting as a funnel. Next, the gas travels to the catalytic converter, where applicable. For instance, electric vehicles (EVs) do not have catalytic converters when there are no gasoline engines. Well, on the other hand, hybrids do for the engine portion of power. At the catalytic converter, the harmful gases are removed prior to moving on. Finally, the final gases pass through downpipes to the exhaust’s muffler or silencer. The purpose of this part of the exhaust is to filter sound, or amplify it. Manufacturers tend to remove sound while aftermarket companies amplify it.
Hopefully, That Helps!
So, hopefully this article helps with the question: “How Does an Exhaust System Work?”. Covering the basics of gases to release via the exhaust tips, this article covers a decent portion of the process. The goal of this is to provide readers with a simple understanding of the system. Obviously, there is more that can be for discussion such as details on specific designs or layouts, temperature effects, and more. But, that is something for another time. Overall, the exhaust system plays a vital role on all gasoline vehicles.
Note: The featured image is by Clément Bucco-Lechat of Wikimedia Commons.
A Production Reign from 1975 to 1985
From 1975 to 1985, the Ferrari 308 GTB was assembled in Maranello, Italy. This beautiful car’s initial design is by Leonardo Fioravanti at Pininfarina. The name “GTB” basically stands for “Gran Touring Berlinetta”. On the other hand, the 308 GTS is a Targa top, but that will be left for another future article. The Ferrari 308 GTB is a transverse mid-engine RWD sports car. The predecessor of the 308 GTB is the Dino 246 GT/GTS. Furthermore, the successor is the 328 GTB/GTS.
Initially, the 308 GTB made its intro at the Paris Motor Show in 1975. As per the GTS, this debut occurs 2 years later at the 1977 Frankfurt Motor Show. The major difference of these two models is the top design. The GTB has a hard-top whereas the GTS has the Targa top. Performance wise, both cars perform very similar. The only performance difference is mostly due to weight.
2.9-Liter Tipo F106 AB V8 Engine
The 1975-1985 Ferrari 308 GTB sports a 2.9-liter Tipo F106 AB V8 engine. First off, the European version contains 252 horsepower due to a dry sump setup. Unfortunately, the U.S. version tapers back to 237 horsepower. This is due to a wet sump because of emission control requirements. Furthermore, the motor is a 90 degrees V8 with a belt-driven twin overhead camshaft per cylinder bank. Even furthermore, the car has four twin-choke Weber 40DCNF carbs with a single coil ignition. On top of this, the engine works in combo with a fully synchromesh 5-speed “dog-leg” manual transmission. Lastly, this system receives support from a limited slip differential.
Racing Components of the 308 GTB
The 1975-1985 Ferrari 308 GTB is a classic racing car at heart. Firstly, the car starts with the beastly 2.9-liter V8. Secondly, the car is built from a tube frame and glass-enforced separate plastic body. But, in June 1977, the body changed to steel. Before the steel, the car weight was 2315 lbs. Afterwards, the steel added an increase of around 331 lbs. Thirdly, the driver takes full control with unassisted rack and pinion steering.
Fourthly, the 308 GTB has an all independent suspension. This system contains double wishbones, coaxial coil springs, hydraulic dampers, and anti-roll bars. Fifthly, and finally, is the 4-wheel vented disc brakes. From the engine to suspension, this car could compete with the crème of the crop at the time. Unfortunately, nowadays, parts for this car are rare, and sometimes even manufactured new due to lack of replacement parts.
Who Doesn’t Want to Drive a 308 GTB?
This Ferrari 308 GTB Traces The Streets Of Bangkok Daily – Petrolicious – YouTube
Overall, the 1975-1985 Ferrari 308 GTB is an amazing machine. From the beautiful styling to the V8, this car was sure to please the auto enthusiast at the time. Furthermore, this car still pleases many fans today. Today, the 1975-1985 308 GTB ranges in price from as low at $50,000 up to over $200,000. This may not equate to the value of some other Ferraris, which cost millions, but this car is well worth this price. Down the road, this car may increase in value as it is truly a stunning machine. In conclusion, although the 308 GTB didn’t reach one million USD in value, this car offers the pleasure as if it did so.
Ferrari’s 2-Door Berlinetta Grand Tourer
From 1996 to 2001, Ferrari produced the 550 Maranello for the sports car market. The Ferrari 550 Maranello design is by Lorenzo Ramaciotti at Pininfarina. To no surprise, the 550 Maranello was built in Maranello, Italy. As a front-engine Ferrari, this car was debatable upon enthusiasts. Regardless of the debates, the 550 Maranello proved to be another Ferrari powerhouse vehicle.
5.5-Liter Tipo F133A V12 with 478 Horsepower
The Ferrari 550 Maranello sports a 5.5-liter DOHC Tipo F133A V12 engine. In addition, this motor has 4 valves per cylinder and a variable length intake manifold. Furthermore, the 5.5-liter V12 engine produces 478 horsepower and 419 lb.-ft. of torque. In combo with a 6-speed manual transmission, the 550 Maranello can hit 62 mph in only 4.4 seconds. The 550 Maranello can complete 0 to 100 mph in 9.6 seconds. Lastly, this vehicle can complete a quarter mile in 12.5 seconds at 116.9 mph. The top speed of the 550 Maranello is 199 mph.
Double Wishbone Suspension & Technology
The Ferrari 550 Maranello arrives with a double wishbone suspension. This suspension uses coaxial coil springs and dampers. Furthermore, there are front and rear anti-roll bars. For the steering, the car uses a rack-and-pinion system with variable power assist. On the technology side, the car offers an electronic driver aid system including anti-slip regulation. Lastly, the braking system design is a four-way ABS layout.
Ferrari 550 Barchetta Pininfarina
Although the 550 Maranello seems to be the most popular, there was also a 550 Barchetta Pininfarina model. This model is a convertible with no real top and a cautioned top speed of 70 mph. There were only 448 total models made which was increased from 444 due to Japanese market superstition. This vehicle has a different engine type with the same specifications. Basically, the difference is that it has a Tipo F133C motor instead of a Tipo F133A. There were also two other special models on the market including the Rossa and 550 GTZ. The Ferrari Rossa was a 70th anniversary edition for Pininfarina while the GTZ was a 90th anniversary edition. Not surprisingly, the GTZ MSRP was $1,600,000.
2000 & 2001 International Engine of the Year
Here’s Why the Ferrari 550 Maranello Is Worth $150,000 (Or More) – Doug – DeMuro – YouTube
Overall, the Ferrari 550 Maranello is a beautiful take on a FWD sports car. With its unique styling and power V12, this car can appeal to most sports car fans. Not surprisingly, the 550 Maranello motor won the 2000 and 2001 International Engine of the Year. Currently, this car is available on the market for between $100,000 and slightly over $200,000. In conclusion, the 550 Maranello deserves the appreciation that the other Ferrari models experience.
The Ferrari Dino 246 GT is a Beautiful Classic
The Ferrari Dino 246 GT is a beautiful classic car that was produced from 1969 to 1974. There was a total of 3,761 units produced for the GT and GTS models. The design is by Leonardo Fioravanti of Pininfarina at the time. The Dino 246 GT is a transverse layout vehicle with a rear mid-engine and RWD. The 246 GT may not be as unique as the 250 GTO, but it is a true Ferrari classic.
2.4-Liter V6 Engine with 195 Horsepower
The Ferrari Dino 246 GT sports a 2.4-liter V6 engine with 195 horsepower. In combination with the engine is a 5-speed manual all-synchromesh transmission. This combo allows the Dino to hit 60 mph in 5.5 seconds. The top speed estimated by Ferrari was 146 mph, but a record of 148 mph has been obtained by third party tester. In the United States, there is a detuned version of the Dino 246 GT which has only 175 horsepower due to an exhaust air-pump and timing change.
Ferrari Dino 246 GT vs. Ferrari Dino 246 GTS
The Ferrari Dino 246 GT was built in 2 model variations. The two types of Dino are the GT and GTS. The Ferrari 246 GT is a Berlinetta sports car while the GTS is a Targa top version. The cars are basically identical other than the top. Either way, both cars are beautiful stunners.
Current Market Value of Between $300,000 and $500,000
In the end, the Ferrari Dino 246 GT and GTS are amazing sports cars from a past time. These vehicles were shining stars during their day and still shine brightly today. The design of the Dino 246 GT by Pininfarina is exactly what you’d expect it to be. The V6 may not be as big as other models, but it holds its ground. In the current market, the Dino 246 GT is worth between $300,000 and $500,000. In conclusion, the Ferrari Dino 246 GT is another special collector car.
The 1990s Jaguar XJ220
In the first half of the 1990s, Jaguar designed and manufactured the infamous Jaguar XJ220 supercar. This 2-seater supercar was produced from 1992 to 1994 at JaguarSport in Bloxham, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom. The XJ220 was limited to only 275 units. Initially, the XJ220 concept has a V12 engine, as anyone expects, but the production version has a smaller motor. Jaguar was initially planning to install a V12 engine in the XJ220 but it wouldn’t have met power goals due to regulations.
3.5-Liter Twin-Turbocharged JRV-6 V6 Engine
The Jaguar XJ220 sports a 3.5-liter twin-turbocharged JRV-6 V6 engine. Yes, a V6 rather than a V12… but hold on. The XJ220 V6 boasts a whopping 542 horsepower and 473 lb.-ft. of torque. This allows the XJ220 to hit 62 mph in only 3.8 seconds. This vehicle also completes a quarter mile in only 11.7 seconds. This powerful V6 works in unison with a 5-speed manual transmission.
Guinness World Record Holder for Top Speed in early 90s
In the early 1990s, the Jaguar XJ220 received the Guinness World Record for the fastest production car at the time. A top speed of 212.3 mph was obtained while in Fort Stockton, Texas. After that, the top speed was beat out by the McLaren F1 at 240.1 mph. That McLaren did not have a rev limiter though. Although this record is long forgotten, this car was once a world record holder… respect.
Jaguar XJ220 Pininfarina Edition
In 1995, Jaguar was commissioned to build a special edition called the Pininfarina for the Sultan of Brunei and his brother Prince Jefri. This model differs from the production model in a few ways. First, the Pininfarina has fixed front headlights and enhanced rear taillights. The rear wing was re-designed as well as a new interior package was installed on this car. This model was strictly limited to the receivers, making it a one-of-a-kind supercar. Regardless, all of the XJ220 are truly rare supercars.
Currently Worth Around Half A Million Dollars
Overall, the infamous Jaguar XJ220 supercar was a shining star of its time. With a beastly V6 and a sporty design, this car was up and above sports cars at the time. On the current market, the XJ220 is worth about half a million dollars ($500,000 USD). Not many of these are for sale, so for collectors, now is the time to obtain yours… before it’ s too late. In conclusion, the Jaguar XJ220 is a unique supercar that deserves more respect.
The Legendary Ferrari F50
The Ferrari F50 is an equivalent of a F-1 engined road car. From its unique styling to its racing design, the F50 is a collector’s dream. The F50 was produced from 1995 to 1997 by Ferrari with only 349 models built total. As expected, the designer is Pininfarina and it was assembled in Maranello, Italy. To no surprise, the F50 is loaded with Ferrari goodies.
4.7-Liter DOHC V12 (513 Horsepower)
The Ferrari F50 sports a 4.7-liter DOHC V12 producing 513 horsepower and 347 lb.-ft. of torque. The F50 V12 has no trouble redlining at 8,500 rpm with a fuel cut-off at 8,640 rpm. This car also features a Bosch Motronic 2.7 ECU system. The ECU controls fuel feed, ignition timing, and variable length intake and exhaust systems. By variable exhaust and intake, Ferrari means a butterfly valve that is closed at low rpm and open at high rpm.
Although the F50 is a beautiful implementation of engineering, the mileage is lacking, as expected. The F50 gets only 7 mpg in the city and 10 mpg on the highway, defining a true gas guzzler. Usually, these cars don’t rack up miles, so this usually isn’t a concern. As a collector’s car, the F50 is usually displayed in a showroom of sports cars in a private collection. The truth is, how could you possibly not drive this beautiful car?
A True F-1 Sports Car
Overall, the Ferrari F50 defines a F-1 road car. The F50 is able to hit 60 mph in only 3.7 seconds and complete a quarter mile in 10.7 seconds at 125 mph. Top speed of this beauty is 202 mph. The initial MSRP of the F50 was $417,000. Now, the F50 sells for between $2 and $3 million USD. If you were fortunate enough to obtain this car from Ferrari on release, you purchased a true treasure… and also made a small fortune.
The Ferrari Enzo is a Legendary Sports Car
The Ferrari Enzo, a legendary sports car, was produced between the years 2002-2004 for the base model. The production of the Enzo FXX went until 2007 and the FXX Evoluzione went until 2009. In total, there were 400 Enzo models produced by Ferrari. Ken Okayama of Pininfarina designed the Ferrari Enzo for the manufacturer. Lastly, the Ferrari Enzo was named after the company’s founder, Enzo Ferrari.
6.0-liter V12 with 651 Horsepower
The Ferrari Enzo boasts a 6.0-liter Tipo F140 B V12 engine producing 651 horsepower and 485 lb.-ft. of torque. The motor was designed with a redline at 8,200 rpm, similar to the Porsche Carrera GT. The Enzo has the F1 gearbox which is a semi-automatic transmission with a clutch. Amazingly, the Enzo can hit 60 mph in only 3.14 seconds. On top of that, the Enzo can hit 100 mph in only 6.6 seconds, faster than many cars can hit 60.
Quarter Mile: ~11 Seconds
The quarter mile time of the Ferrari Enzo is around 11 seconds, also similar to the Porsche Carrera GT. On the skid pad, the car reached 1.05 g and a top speed of 221 mph is on record. On the downside, the Enzo only gets 7 mpg in the city and 12 mpg on the highway. With a passenger on board, the Enzo lapped Silverstone Stowe Circuit in only 58.31 seconds. Lastly, the Enzo has a power to weight ratio of 4.48 lb per horsepower.
Ferrari Enzo is an Auto Collector’s Dream
Overall, the Ferrari Enzo is a legendary sports car. From its amazing styling to its powerful engine, the Enzo is a dream come true. Although released in the 2000s, the Enzo has only gone up in price since then. The original MSRP of the car was $659,330. Now, the car is sold in used for condition at over $3,000,000. As of today, some models are closing in towards the higher end of the $3 million range (~$3.7 million USD). The Ferrari Enzo is the collector car of a lifetime and owning one is a major goal of any true auto enthusiast.
The Legendary Ferrari F40 LM
If you’re an auto enthusiast, then you know the Ferrari F40 LM is a legendary vehicle. From its unique design to its overly powerful engine, the F40 is a real race car. A rare spectacle, the Ferrari F40 LM is a treasure of any auto collector.
First of all, the Ferrari F40 LM was originally developed by Pilot-Aldix Racing. The Ferrari F40 won the 4 Hours of Anderstorp in 1995 and 1996. After that, the F40 was removed from GT racing. Basically, the Ferrari F40 LM was a Ferrari F40 base model that was altered to be more competitive in the BPR Global GT Series. In 1994, The Ferrari F40 appeared in the 4 Hours of Vallelunga but not in the F40 LM version.
The Ferrari F40 was produced from 1987 to 1992 in Maranello, Italy. The model was designed by Leonardo Fioravanti of Pininfarina S.p.A.. A limited production, there were only 1,311 models produced worldwide. The F40 is a race car with a 2-door Berlinetta body style and a mid-engine, rear-wheel drive layout. It boasts a twin-turbocharged 2.9-liter V8 engine boasting 478 horsepower and 425 lb.-ft. of torque. In addition, the Ferrari F40 sports a traditional 5-speed gated manual transmission. The predecessor of the F40 was the Ferrari 288 GTO and the successor is the Ferrari F50.
The Ferrari F40 was revealed to the public in 1987 with mixed reactions. Unfortunately, Enzo Ferrari passed away in August 1988, shortly afterwards. Enzo Ferrari was the entree who founded the legendary Italian brand of Ferrari. Without him, the Ferrari F40 would’ve never made it into existence.
The Ferrari F40 is Estimated to be Worth $1,500,000!
Currently, the Ferrari F40 is estimated to be worth around $1,500,000. During the late 1980s, the F40 was sold for a starting price of around $400,000. For those fortunate enough to purchase this car, they made a whopping $1,000,000 on their investment. Overall, the Ferrari F40 LM is a renowned vehicle that auto enthusiasts can dream of driving.