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2015 Mercedes-Benz GLA250 4MATIC Review

2015 Mercedes-Benz GLA250 4MATIC - Front - EuroDrift

2015 Mercedes-Benz GLA250 4MATIC – Front – EuroDrift

After 2 years with a 2015 Mercedes-Benz GLA250 4MATIC, the car displayed both positives and negatives. Starting at a MSRP of around $34,225, the GLA is the little brother of the GL series. The 2015 GLA250 4MATIC sports a turbocharged 2.0-liter four-cylinder engine pushing 208 horsepower and 258 lb.-ft. of torque. The GLA250 4MATIC can complete a 0-60 mph acceleration in 6.4 seconds. In circular turning, the GLA recorded 0.87 g.

2015 Mercedes-Benz GLA250 4MATIC Positives & Negatives

On the positive side, the 2015 Mercedes-Benz GLA250 4MATIC has a comfortable interior and ride. The interior has a sporty design with leatherette and inlay options. The suspension maintains a sporty feel while providing the comfort a Benz is expected to offer. For a SUV, the GLA250 isn’t a terrible gas guzzler, leading to a positive fuel consumption experience. Lastly, the GLA250 styling is sleek and sporty.

On the negative side, the 2015 Mercedes-Benz GLA250 4MATIC boasts blind spots and disappointing tech. The design of the vehicle increases the blind spots of the vehicle, making blind spot assist a highly recommended feature. Tech wise, the navigation unit is disappointing compared to Audi’s Google Maps integration. The system is a bit difficult to navigate for beginners and is not extremely user friendly. Hopefully, this is being improved in the face lifted version of the car. On top of that, an issue in the vehicle reviewed was the display unit which would tends to shut off for a few seconds when hitting bumps or potholes on the road. In major cities in the Northeast U.S., this makes the display unit dip a frequent occurrence.

The 2015 GLA250 4MATIC Holds to the Mercedes-Benz Reputation

Overall, the 2015 Mercedes-Benz GLA250 4MATIC proved to be a pretty decent automobile. The comfort and sportiness made up for the discrepancies in the technology. From what was seen at the North American International Auto Show 2017 in Detroit, the GLA250 facelift offered enhancements in each direction. If you’re considering purchasing a used GLA250 4MATIC, you aren’t making the wrong decision. In the end, you won’t be disappointed with your experience.

2018 Ferrari Portofino: The California T Replacement

2018 Ferrari Portofino: The California T Replacement

Ferrari recently revealed the newest addition to its models, the 2018 Ferrari Portofino. The 2018 Ferrari Portofino is the planned replacement for the current Ferrari California T. The Portofino will be powered by a front-mounted 3.9-liter twin-turbo V8 producing an estimated 591 horsepower and 561 lb.-ft. of torque. This power will allow the Portofino to complete a 0-62 mph run in as little as 3.5 seconds. Ferrari also claims that the Portofino will be able to go over 199 mph, but not by how much. That means it “may” be a 200 mph class vehicle.

The first appearance of the 2018 Ferrari Portofino is expected to occur at the 2017 Frankfurt Auto Show in September. Some may call the Portofino the bottom-of-the-line Ferrari. Regardless of its placement within the brand, the Portofino is a true Ferrari vehicle. At an expected MSRP of over $200,000, the Portofino will exceed the California T in a few ways.

Firstly, there will be an additional 39 horsepower and 4 lb.-ft. of torque over the California T. Secondly, the Portofino will sport a brand new chassis that is lighter and sturdier than the California T. On top of this, the E-Diff3, an electronically controlled limited-slip differential, will be included in the video. Lastly, Ferrari engineers improved the magnetorheological adaptive-damping system as well as the electrically assisted power-steering system.

The 2018 Ferrari Portofino Will Be Stunning

Overall, the 2018 Ferrari Portofino is a great vehicle from what can be seen from the reveal. The expected, powerful Ferrari V8 will be completed by a brand new design taking Ferrari to the next generation. Many may think this is the low end of Ferrari, but it is a true Italian sports car. The Portofino offers slightly more power than the California T with an overhaul in the technology department. The unveil in Frankfurt should be exciting with prospective clients ready to see this vehicle.

Forza Horizon 3: Hoonigan Car Pack – 1991 Hoonigan Rauh-Welt Begriff Porsche 911 Turbo

1991 Hoonigan Rauh-Welt Begriff Porsche 911 Turbo - Skyline - Forza Horizon 3 Hoonigan Car Pack - EuroDrift

1991 Hoonigan Rauh-Welt Begriff Porsche 911 Turbo – Skyline – Forza Horizon 3 Hoonigan Car Pack – EuroDrift

1991 Hoonigan Rauh-Welt Begriff Porsche 911 Turbo

Forza Horizon 3, a racing video game on Xbox One and Windows, recently released the Hoonigan Car Pack for $6.99. While the DLC contained cars such as the 1965 Hoonigan Ford “Hoonicorn” Mustang, there was only one European car. The 1991 Hoonigan Rauh-Welt Begriff Porsche 911 Turbo makes its debut in this game as a top runner. As a Porsche, it already has an edge on the other vehicles such as the Fords or Mazda. On top of this, the Porsche 911 Turbo is modded to even more so enhance the vehicle.

1991 Hoonigan Porsche 911 Turbo Specifications

The 1991 Hoonigan Raul-Welt Begriff Porsche 911 Turbo sports a 3.3-liter 6 cylinder boxer engine. On top of this, the mods include an Andial K27 turbo, sport intercooler, C2 cams, B&B exhaust, and mapping. As hoped, the 911 has a five-speed manual transmission. The brakes were converted to Porsche 993 Turbo “Big Red” with four-piston calibers (332mm front/rear). Lastly, the suspension was replaced by KW Variant 3 coil-overs with a height lift system.

On the exterior, there are Rauh-Welt Begriff fender flares as well as upgraded bumpers and side skirts.
The rear wing and crosshair headlights are modifications as well. The entire car is coated in a satin white pearl paint.

On the interior, the seats were replaced by Recaro Profi XL seats with lobster red trimming. There are also four-point Schroth harnesses, Momo pedals and steering wheel, as well as a Roth Sport gear lever.

Overall, the 1991 Hoonigan Raul-Welt Begriff Porsche 911 Turbo represents the European cars well in Forza Horizon 3. From its true to heart German engineering to its customizations, it is a great in-game vehicle. Against the other cars, this is EuroDrift’s personal favorite. You’re welcome to pick any car in the Hoonigan Car Pack DLC, but don’t hesitate to give the Porsche 911 Turbo a chance.

2019 Rolls-Royce Cullinan: Calling Out The Bentley Bentayga

In late 2018, Rolls-Royce expects to introduce their first SUV model into the worldwide market, the 2019 Rolls-Royce Cullinan.

2019 Rolls-Royce Cullinan SUV

Rolls-Royce named the Cullinan after an enormous diamond of 3106.8 karats worth an estimated $400 million U.S. dollars. With this vehicle, Rolls-Royce intends to join the recently booming market of luxury SUVs. As with most Rolls-Royce vehicles, the Cullinan will have a hefty price tag of around $420,000, similar to the Rolls-Royce Phantom. The obvious target audience for a car of this stature is the rich and wealthy. In reality, only a few percent of the world population can afford such an extravagant vehicle.

The 2019 Rolls-Royce Cullinan will be built on a new aluminum spaceframe architecture specifically designed for the vehicle. The Cullinan will sport 4×4 all-wheel drive as well as the typical Rolls-Royce V12 motor. Auto theorists suggest that the Cullinan may use the same engine as the Rolls-Royce Ghost, a 6.6-liter V12 twin-turbo with 563 horsepower and 605 lb.-ft. of torque. On top of this, the Cullinan will be offered in a Plug-In-Hybrid version to enter the electric auto market. In today’s world, providing the hybrid version makes sense as the V12 motor will obviously be a gas guzzler (although preferred).

2019 Rolls-Royce Cullinan Competition

Competition in the luxury SUV market has been very competitive in the last few years. The 2019 Rolls-Royce Cullinan will compete with a handful of other vehicles including the Bentley Bentayga, Lamborghini Urus, Mercedes-AMG G65, Porsche Cayenne Turbo, and Range Rover Supercharged. Out of those vehicles, the biggest competition will be with the Bentley Bentayga. The other SUVs are half the price of the Bentayga and definitely will not be comparable to the Cullinan’s price. Recently, Rolls-Royce punched hard at Bentley with a comment by its CEO.

While revealing the Rolls-Royce Phantom VIII in London, the Rolls-Royce CEO Torsten Müller-Ötvös stated: “We are not using mass-manufactured body shells. That limits what you can do on the design side, and it undermines exclusivity massively. You don’t want a camouflaged Q7 in that segment. You want to have a true Rolls-Royce.”

Rolls-Royce called out Bentley over using the same mass-manufactured frame as the Audi Q7 on the Bentayga. For a better understanding, Volkswagen owns both Audi and Bentley. On top of that, Volkswagen owns Lamborghini and Porsche, two of the Cullinan’s market competition.

2019 Rolls-Royce Cullinan is a Masterpiece

Overall, the 2019 Rolls-Royce Cullinan will be a masterpiece of an SUV. Probably worth over $400k, this vehicle will be a rare sight for people around the world. If assumptions are correct, the Cullinan should hit the market in late 2018 with its eyes on the prize. Although the Rolls-Royce CEO attacked the Bentley Bentayga, there is sure to be competition between the two competitors. Hopefully, the public will be able to see this beautiful vehicle at the 2018 auto shows around the world.

How to Find a Reputable Mechanic

How to Find a Reputable Mechanic

In car ownership, there is always the chance that a car may break down or develop an issue. Defects usually occur as car ages but even new cars run into problems once in a while. For this reason, it is best to know how to find a reputable mechanic.

 Follow These Steps to Find a Reputable Mechanic

  1. Basic Description of Issue
  2. Dealership & Mechanic Research
  3. The Decision-Making
  4. Scheduling the Appointment
  5. Repairing the Vehicle 

find a reputable mechanic Basic Description of Issue

When you need to find a reputable mechanic, begin by diagnosing the problem. Whether the vehicle breaks down or there is an irregular sound, do your best to localize the issue. Do your best to describe the issue at hand so you can simplify the process. An added benefit to fully explaining the issue is a reduction of time needed by the mechanics to diagnose the problem. Less time means you spend less money out of your pocket.

The description of the issue begins with a fundamental analysis of the vehicle. If the vehicle breaks down, the problem is most likely with the engine. Should you hear an irregular noise while operating the vehicle, try to take note of where the sound is taking place. If another person is available, you could ask them to listen outside the vehicle. When the vehicle has an unusual vibration, be sure to take note of when it occurs, and whether it’s due to the motor or the vehicular motion.

 Where is the Problem Located?

Problems that you can feel can include alignment, brake, steering wheel, tire, or transmission issues. An alignment issue can be noticed by steering wheel misalignment on a straight drive or the vehicle steering by itself to the left or right. An alignment issue is not a major problem, as long as you feel comfortable controlling the vehicle under the circumstances.

If the brakes do not feel the right, whether they are gripping less or losing pressure, it is best not to drive the vehicle before having the car repaired. Problems with the brakes can range from degraded pads and rotors to leaking brake lines.

If the steering wheel feels less sensitive or loose, the problem is most likely occurring in the steering system of the vehicle. Steering problems often arise from alignment or tire issues. If the car has overall difficulty steering, do not attempt to drive the vehicle as it is not a safe option.

 Check Your Tires

Tire problems include damage, flat tires, leaks, low tire pressures, and unequal tire pressures. A damaged, flat, or low-pressure tire may make a noticeable difference in the feel of your vehicle. If the tire is damaged, it should be inspected by a technician ASAP. A damaged tire can lead to a blowout which is a very unsafe situation.

tiresIf the tire is flat or losing air, it is best to park the vehicle and replace it yourself or through a mobile vehicle service (such as AAA). Low-pressure tires may be good for sand but are not safe for normal road conditions. It is best to ensure tire pressure is below the maximum value on the tire and close to the value provided by the manufacturer on the inner door label.

A tire leak may not be noticeable until there is a flat tire, but sometimes a hissing sound may be present. If you notice a tire leak, move to the next step to see if it can be patched or needs replacing. Lastly, unequal tire pressures may not be noticeable, but sometimes it can lead to an uncomfortable ride.

Once you have described the problem, it is time to move onto the research portion of your preparation.

 Dealership & Mechanic Research

The second step of finding a reputable mechanic is to conduct research. Depending on the vehicle’s mileage or year, the car may fall under warranty for some problems. The first step of research is to understand your circumstances. If you are within warranty requirements, then contact a local dealership to see if they can correct the issue. It is best to go to a dealership for warranty work. If not, then you can decide between a dealership or mechanic.

 Find a Reputable Mechanic

Once you know about the warranty, it is time to conduct research. Whether you are searching for a dealership or a mechanic, the best place to start is the web. Go into your favorite search engine and look up your vehicle’s brand dealerships and mechanics with your zip code.

An example of this would be “Audi Dealership 12345” or “Audi Mechanic 12345”. Once you see the list of possible options, there will usually be ratings available to you. If not, you can make a list of the options then use a review website such as Google, Yelp, or even social media.

The rating of the business is usually a good indicator of their services but always be sure to read some reviews, both negative and positive, to see both sides of the story. Sometimes negative reviews can save you from a disaster, but sometimes they are illegitimate or due to the customer’s lack of understanding.

Once you have checked the reviews and decided on a location, you can start the next step. Now, you will want to call each dealership and mechanic shop to obtain prices for the job. If you are looking for the best repair for your vehicle regardless of price, the dealership is probably the best place to go. This recommendation does not mean that a general mechanic cannot handle the job, but dealerships hire and train workers trained on a specific brand which creates a better understanding of those cars.

If you are worried about cost, the dealership is usually more expensive than the mechanic. From here, it is up to you to make the best decision based on the reviews and your expectations.

 The Decision-Making Process

The third step is to decide on the dealership or mechanic shop. As mentioned above, you should base the decision on both your expectations and the researched reviews. If you have chosen a mechanic, then you are ready to schedule your appointment. If not, take more time to look at more reviews as well as seek additional information from the shops.

Remember, do not allow a shop to pressure you into an appointment. You are the customer, not them. In the end, ensure you are satisfied with your decision as once you begin the repairs, you can’t go “Hey! Stop! I changed my mind!” while the cars gutted in the shop.

 Scheduling the Appointment

Once you find a reputable mechanic you need to schedule an appointment. Call the dealer or technician on the phone during hours and check their availability. Analyze your schedule and make a decision that is best for you. If the problem will only take a few hours to repair and you can wait, do so. If not, ask for a rental vehicle for the day.

Dealerships may offer rental cars for a small cost while mechanics usually do not provide this service. If the dealer and mechanic can’t help you, then you can always rent one on your own. You could also take advantage of the situation and rent a car such as an Alfa Romeo 4C for the day. If you do, make sure to take a “sick” day.

 Repairing the Vehicle

If you find a reputable mechanic, you can feel confident that they care about you, your car, and your satisfaction. Once the car is ready for pickup, they will call you. If there wasn’t any warranty coverage, then you will be responsible for all expenses related to the repair including paint, parts, and wages.

Be sure to check the bill over to ensure they didn’t charge you for something you didn’t need. If your repair was for a motor belt and the bill shows an exhaust tip replacement, you can point that out. If you did not agree to repairs in-person, by email, or over the telephone, you should not have to pay for the charges. At this stage, confront the dealer or shop – if they will not discuss it with you then you may consider seeking an attorney, but we won’t get into that. Otherwise, as long as you are satisfied with the bill and repair, you are ready to get back on the road.

When you need to find a reputable mechanic, there is no reason to stress. From localizing the issue to the day of repair, the steps above should help you get through the process. Research and communication are vital to your success.

How to Find a Reputable Used Car Dealership

Finding a reputable used car dealership while looking for a used car can be a tedious task. Many dealerships nationwide are flagged with negative comments or reviews from angry customers who have had bad experiences.

From price changes to fewer perks, many dealerships have pulled a fast one on a customer at some point or another. It is important while searching to buy a new or used car that you locate the right dealership. This is even more important with used cars as these cars can come without warranties and undisclosed problems.

The steps to finding a reputable used car dealership are as follows:

  1. Decide on a Specific Vehicle or Type of Vehicle
  2. Research Dealerships within Your Vicinity
  3. Inspect Dealership Websites for Inventory
  4. Contact Dealership to Setup Test Drive with Sales Associate
  5. Haggle & Purchase the Vehicle of Choice

Below, we will review each of the above tasks in detail.

 Decide on a Specific Vehicle or Type of Vehicle

The first step to successfully purchasing a used vehicle is to decide on a specific vehicle or type of vehicle. You may already know which car you’d like to purchase making this process much easier. If not, you can focus your search by deciding on a type of vehicle.

Types of vehicles include coupes, hatchbacks, minivans, pickup trucks, sedans, sports cars, SUVs, and trucks. If you are unable to pick a specific vehicle or type of vehicle, you can begin your search by visiting a local car show, searching the web, or visiting a local dealership to simply take a look around. Once you’re familiar with the specific vehicle or type of vehicle, you can move to the next stage.

 Research Dealerships within Your Vicinity

The second step is to look for a reputable used car dealership within your vicinity that offers used vehicles. If you know a specific vehicle, there will most likely be less dealerships offering the vehicle whereas searching by type will lead to a larger variety of options.

The best way to locate local reputable used car dealerships is to search on Google. Examples of what to look up are “BMW Used Car Dealership in Los Angeles, California” and “Used Sedan in Chicago, Illinois”. Simply search the specific vehicle or type of vehicle plus used car dealership in your city. From there, sift through the list of dealerships locating who has a car of interest already in stock.

Next, search the internet for reviews on each dealership on websites such as the Better Business Bureau (BBB), Google, and Yelp. If any dealership has a poor rating across the board, it is best to avoid it.

Attempt to locate a dealership or dealerships with good ratings across the board. There will always be negative reviews that do not reflect the true experience of a dealership. Always be sure the review has thorough reasoning for their distress, not simply the dealership being closed before operating hours

Another option is to check the dealerships’ social media pages as these will usually contain reviews. Social media pages will also show you if anyone you know has been to or likes the dealership, allowing you to reach out to them for a personal perspective.

Inspect Dealership Websites for Inventory

The third step is to inspect dealership websites for inventory. This step begins with searching each dealership’s inventory to see which vehicles are of interest to you, and which are not. Eliminate all vehicles that do not meet your expectations or requirements. Remember, this is a long-term purchase so the goal is to try to meet your expectations or arrive as close to them as possible.

Once you have sifted through inventory after inventory, make a list of about 5 cars you’d like to see in person. If you have a list of at least one dealership with at least one vehicle of interest, you are ready to consider moving to the next stage. If you have more than one dealership to contact, this may help with your haggling process later on due to competition.

Contact the Dealership to Setup a Test Drive with a Sales Associate

The fourth step is to contact the dealership, or dealerships, of interest and setup a test drive with a sales associate. If one of the dealerships has more than one car of interest, make sure to take a list with you to test drive each of the vehicles.

If you have a list containing multiple dealerships, contact each dealership and set up separate appointments across your schedule when available.

From here, take the time to visit the dealership and take the test drive. Starting with the appearance of the dealership inside and out, begin to analyze the quality of the dealership. Next, see how the salesman treats you during your test drive. Some salesman can be seen as “snakes” and will attempt to sell you any car they can at the highest price they can. The goal is to find a sales associate who cares about your personal interests more so than their own.

Once you test drive each of the vehicles, eliminate any vehicles that may have lost your interest during this period. Test driving each of the cars will allow you to see the quality of the engine, exterior, and interior as well as the quality of the functionality. Make sure to take note of any and all damage to the vehicle or any other obvious problems. Once you have decided on a set list of vehicles to move to the next stage with, get ready to haggle.

 Haggle & Purchase the Vehicle of Choice

The fifth and final step is to haggle the price then purchase the vehicle of choice. At this point, you have decided on one or more vehicles you’d be happy to use for an extended period of time (whether years or a century). Be prepared, each sales associate will attempt to sell you the vehicle under some form of pressure. Although it may be stressful, this is your time to shine. Remember, the dealership and the sales associate want the sale due to profit and commission, respectively.

Haggling the price of a vehicle may seem difficult or intimidating, but it is completely possible. Each dealership lists cars to sell at a profit, whether small or large. The expected profit allows the dealership room to negotiate the price of the car to get it off of the lot. Most dealerships will be willing to haggle the price of a vehicle to get it off of their lot. Next, some advice will be laid out on how to haggle the vehicle.

How to Haggle Effectively

First, wait until the sales associate comes back to you with their “discounted” price. Once you see the price, state that you are unsure about it and will need to think about it. If you are looking at multiple vehicles at different dealerships, then mention that you are doing so and that you think the other dealership has a better offer.

If you have proof of this, that is even better than blindly stating a false claim. Next, if the sales associate is unwilling to go back to their manager to request another discount, leave the dealership stating you will think about it. Next time you speak to the sales associate, state you aren’t satisfied with the price and you are considering taking your business elsewhere.

Usually, the sales person will try to win your sale so they will attempt to receive another discount. Sometimes the dealership may simply be unwilling to negotiate which leaves you with no other options. But in many cases, the price can be negotiated down to a middle value in which the dealership and the buyer are happy with the results. While negotiating, keep a straight face and show strong determination to find the best price.

Deciding Whether or Not to Purchase the Vehicle

After haggling, you will need to make the decision as to whether to purchase the vehicle or not. If there is only one vehicle of interest, this decision may be tough as you don’t have other options. However, if you have multiple vehicles of interest, figure which vehicle offers the best price to quality ratio. If one of the vehicles truly stands out to you, then that is the vehicle for you. Once the decision is made, contact your sales associate and prepare to handle the paperwork required for the purchase.

The purchase process usually begins with filling out an application. If paying by cash, you will simply need to handle paperwork related to the dealership sale. If you are requesting a loan, you will be required to undergo a hard credit check which will show up on your credit report. It is best to minimize the amount of times your credit is pulled by applying to a specific bank of choice or attempting to accept a pre-approved offer. Allowing the dealership to contact many banks will result in multiple hard checks, dropping your credit score slightly.

Overall, buying a used car is an important decision in anyone’s life. The used car will most likely be an extended use item which will be part of your life for years. It is best to choose a vehicle that fits your needs and will satisfy your expectations. Remember, the dealership wants to sell the car to you, so you have the upper hand in negotiations. In the end, hopefully this article helps you to locate a reputable used car dealership and make a satisfying purchase.

The Invention of the Traffic Light

In the early 1900s, the invention of the traffic light changed the way of life in the United States. On August 5, 1914, Cleveland installed the first electric traffic signal in the world.  Although this change was local to Cleveland, the electric traffic signal would shape the way of traffic management. Today, the electric traffic signal appears in modern cities worldwide to control traffic and lower accident casualties.

History Credits Several with the Invention of the Traffic Light

The invention of the traffic light remains a debatable topic because several variations of traffic lights showed up in cities throughout history. The most notable appeared in Cleveland, London, and Salt Lake City.

The earliest noted design of the traffic signal was in London in 1868. The London traffic signal used two extended semaphore arms to signal “caution” at a 45-degrees angle and “stop” at a 90-degrees angle. In 1912, Lester Wire, a Salt Lake City, Utah police officer, mounted a wooden box light signal to a pole. The signals connected to the overhead trolley and light wires which powered the system.

Garrett Morgan

The most known design, by Garrett Morgan, formed a T-shaped traffic signal which he patented on November 20, 1923. Then, years later, this patent went to General Electric (GE) for an unknown sum of money. Garrett Morgan invented the traffic light in response to an accident, where he saw where an automobile collided with a horse-drawn carriage.

When he saw this carnage, Morgan then decided to do something to control traffic patterns and increase safety while traveling by road. Morgan not only patented the T-shaped traffic light in the United States but he also patented it in Canada and Great Britain.

James Hoge

On August 5, 1914, Cleveland installed James Hoge’s electric traffic light signal. James Hoge then received his patent for the “Municipal Traffic Control System” in 1918 which showed the number 1,251,666. This design consisted of four pairs of green and red lights which indicated stop and go for traffic in multiple directions.

They manually operated this design via a switch in a control booth. In modern times, sensors and timers control traffic signals. Some signals may operate simply on a timer basis while others may scan for traffic to determine when to operate the switch.

The traffic light changed the way of life for billions of people over the past century. Many people get credit for the design throughout history, however,  the most prominent was Garrett Morgan.

Although Morgan has the highest attention, James Hoge’s invention was installed in Cleveland in 1914. The initial concept of the traffic light dates back to 1868 in London. However, many stories of traffic lights being designed throughout history. Although the true inventor of the traffic signal is disputed, this invention has saved a countless amount of lives.




New German Automobiles for Release 2016

In 2016, some of the German manufacturers made upgrades to their existing models. Then, they also introduced several new German automobiles to the market. Now, we will take a closer look at each of these vehicles.

 Audi A1

First, the German automaker Audi introduced a new vehicle, the Audi A1, into the Indian market in 2016. The Audi A1 included an aggressive radiator grille, which also featured an embedded company’s logo in the front. It’s beautifully crafted headlight cluster houses LED daytime lights along with high-intensity halogen headlamps. The Audi A1 is a tough competitor for the Mercedes- Benz A-Class and the BMW 1-Series, which also debuted in 2016.

The Audi A1 is equipped with a 2-liter, four-cylinder engine capable of producing 248 horsepower. The engine functions in conjunction with a 6-speed automatic or a 6-speed manual transmission.

 BMW 1 Series Facelift

Next, the hatchback model of the BMW 1 Series boasted some cosmetic changes to its interior as well as its exterior. The refurbishment included an 118d Sports-line diesel engine. The exterior changes of the BMW facelift were highlighted by a wraparound headlamp cluster on both sides as well as the signature kidney-shaped radiator grille.

The 2016 BMW 1 Series facelift also included a 2-liter four-cylinder turbocharged diesel engine. The cars produce 236 pound-feet of torque between ranges of 1600 – 3000 rpm and 150 horsepower at 4000 rpm respectively. Also, an 8-speed Steptronic automatic transmission is equipped on these BMW models.

 Mercedes-Benz A-Class

The Mercedes-Benz A-class is one of 2016’s new models and it also includes all of the features that one can expect from a supercar. This Mercedes version incorporated aerodynamic improvements and a total of five doors. One of the notable features of the 2016 Mercedes-Benz A-class is its sports exhaust. Drivers can also count on the car’s immobilizer, ABS, traffic sign recognition, traction control, airbags, and a lot more for a safe ride.

The Mercedes-Benz A-class comes equipped with a 1.5-liter, 4-cylinder engine, boasting the power range of 90 – 109 horsepower. The A-Class is also equipped with a 7-speed automatic transmission or 6-speed manual automatic transmission, based on preference.

 Mercedes-Benz GLE Facelift

The Mercedes-Benz GLE facelift replaced the ML and M-Class SUVs. Although there showed no change in the displacements, the facelift version featured enhanced fuel efficiency. It came equipped with a 9-speed automatic transmission system. The refurbishment also included the addition of updated cabin features and cosmetic changes to the exterior.

The GLE facelift comes equipped with a wide range of engines which even included a 2.1-liter four-cylinder diesel engine which outputs 369 pound-feet of torque.

 Porsche 911 Facelift

The facelift model of the Porsche 911 was the most exciting upgrade in 2016. It’s liquid styling turns heads and then grabs eyeballs. Besides turbocharging the new Porsche 911, Porsche also included several other upgrades:

  • Central Exhaust Pipes
  • Door Handles
  • Headlights
  • Improved Dynamics
  • In-Car Technology
  • Rear-Axle S
  • Thin LED DRLs
  • Updated Chassis
  • Upgraded Hood Over the Engine
  • Upgraded Rear Bumper

The 2016 Porsche 911 offers a turbocharged 2.7-liter, six-cylinder engine capable of producing 401 maximum horsepower.

 Volkswagen Passat

Finally, a lot of changes occurred to the 2016 Volkswagen Passat. First, it was 187 pounds lighter than previous models. Then, other changes included an upgraded wheelbase and interior space, equal to many of Volkswagen’s premium sedan models.

The 2.0 TDI engine produces 187 base horsepower. This engine includes the VW DSG dual clutch gearbox. The 2.0 turbocharged direct injection is not only powerful but also quite efficient. The engine works with a 6-speed automatic transmission.




Superchargers vs. Turbos

What is the difference between a Turbocharger and a Supercharger? It may seem that the two terms are used interchangeably. However, if so, it would be in error. While they both augment an engine’s power, their components are completely different. Essentially, when considering superchargers vs turbos, you are looking at the price and complexity of the part.

What is a Supercharger?

A supercharger is a part of an automobile which works to increase the air density or pressure supplied to the internal combustion engine of the vehicle. This air compressor offers increased power to the engine by giving more oxygen to it in each intake cycle. Therefore, a supercharger enables the engine to do more work and burn more fuel.

Superchargers can be categorized into two main types: dynamic compressors and positive displacement. Dynamic compressors deliver pressure at high speeds, usually above a threshold speed. Positive displacement compressors and blowers deliver pressure increase at a constant level at all engine speeds.

What is a Turbocharger?

When a turbine provides power for the supercharger, the supercharger is referred to as a turbo or turbocharger. The exhaust gas powers these turbine-driven units. They force air into the combustion chamber to increase power and efficiency of the internal combustion engine. Due to forcing extra air, the engine adds more fuel proportionally into the combustion chamber. This further leads to improved output results of the engine.

How Superchargers and Turbochargers Work

The amount of boost produced by a supercharger depends on the impeller rotational speed and size, and the type of compressor. The maximum operating speed of an automotive supercharger is usually over 30,000 RPM while that of a turbo is over 100,000 RPM. Until the impeller reaches the point of maximum speed, the compressor doesn’t produce its full boost.

Turbochargers use centrifugal compressors. They boast the same limitations as a supercharger. In a turbo, the speed of the impeller depends on the speed of the exhaust stream and not on the engine’s speed. The turbine’s speed is not fixed; it changes with the position of the throttle.

The turbine spins below its boost threshold at steady cruising speed. When pressing the gas pedal, there is an increase in speed of the exhaust gasses. This results in the acceleration of the turbine. It takes a bit of time for the turbine to overcome its own inertia and to reach the peak speed. This produces a brief delay, which is termed turbo lag.

Turbo Lag

The amount of boost produced affects the severity of turbo lag. A number of efforts have been made to reduce turbo lag. The list includes reducing the turbine mass, changing their shape, adding movable nozzles, and others.

Some cars use two or more different sized sequential turbochargers, where the smaller turbo responds with good low-speed, and the bigger one provides a maximum boost at peak speeds. A few vehicles such as the 1986-1988 Porsche 959 as well as the 2007 Peugeot 407 2.2 HDi use sequential turbochargers.

It is easier to reduce turbo lag with a turbo featuring low maximum boost. The turbo with light pressure used by some Volvo and Saab engines doesn’t produce good boost, but they have a fairly linear power curve and minimal lag.

Two-stage turbo-superchargers are an even more complex alternative. They use both a turbocharger and an engine-driven supercharger in sequence. This kind of supercharger produces maximum boost even at low speeds. Volkswagen uses this concept with its twincharger engines.

Key Differences between the Turbo and Supercharger

  1. Efficiency
  2. Space Requirement
  3. Mode of Driving Power
  4. Complexity and Cost

Now that you understand how a turbocharger and supercharger work, let’s take a moment to explore the key differences between them.


Turbos tend to be less responsive, but more efficient in comparison to the superchargers. Superchargers consume some amount of engine power even when they are not producing useful boost. The back pressure increased by the turbochargers in the exhaust also costs power. In the case of a turbo, the compressor, even at low speeds, can create some amount of internal drag. The increased power that’s provided by the compressor at maximum boost outweighs these parasitic losses, but the fact can’t be ignored that these losses affect the efficiency of the engine.

Space Requirement

Both turbo and superchargers consume more space in the engine compartment and increase the weight of the vehicle. Typically, the bolt-on superchargers fit easily under the hood, and they weigh less in comparison to the weight of Turbo.

Mode of Driving Power

The engine drives a supercharger which connects through a belt to the crankshaft. A turbocharger’s turbine gets its power from the exhaust gas of the engine.

Complexity and Cost

In order to assure engine efficiency, the moving parts need to be strong and precisely machined. Turbos are made from exotic materials so they can withstand high temperatures and high operating speed of the exhaust system. Forced-induction engines demand proper lubrication, as they tend to put a high strain on the oil system of the engine. It is important to use good-quality oil to ensure best results. Additionally, frequent oil change is also important in superchargers in order to eliminate the possibilities of sludge build-up.

The best application for superchargers and turbos depends on the type of vehicle you outfit. You will find that the turbochargers are most commonly used in Europe because of the smaller engines in European cars. Overall, superchargers deliver better boost at lower RPMs, and they’re comparatively more reliable. Whichever you choose, you can count on boosted performance for your car.



Different Types of Auto Upholstery

The interior of a car states a lot about its quality. Auto upholstery is the material that is used to cover the dashboard, doors, and seats of an automobile. Manufacturers use different types of material based on the market segment for the vehicle. Cheaper vehicles will have lower quality materials while more expensive vehicles will have higher quality material such as leather and suede.

If you find that you need to replace old upholstery, then you need to know about the different types of fabrics available. There is a large difference in construction, color, and materials. Examples of car upholstery materials include:

  • Nylon
  • Polyester
  • Vinyl
  • Faux Leather
  • Leather

 Nylon Upholstery

Nylon is the most common fabric used for car upholstery. It is very porous as well as very durable. Nylon upholstery is the least expensive of all of the varieties of upholstery and comes standard in most automobiles. However, tailored Nylon upholstery may feature a hefty price tag.

The best feature of this material is that it is quite easy to clean. You simply need a vacuum to pick up dust and loose dirt from the seat of your car. After that, take some mild detergent and mix it with warm water in a pail. Make sure there are no bubbles formed while mixing. Take a sponge, dip it into the mixture, and scrub the surface of your car’s seat. Once you finish cleaning, take a second sponge and dip it in cold water. Wipe off the detergent from the Nylon surface using this sponge and let the fabric dry.

 Polyester Upholstery

Polyester is next most popular car upholstery after Nylon. The texture of polyester fabric used in automobiles is almost like that of suede leather. Although the softness of the polyester makes it comfortable, it is a bit difficult to maintain the fabric. The texture of the material not only makes it prone to dirt and stains, but the upholstery is also porous. Still, the cleaning job doesn’t require an expert’s hands. You simply need a damp cloth and a low-PH cleaning agent to clean the microsuede material. Make sure the microsuede doesn’t get too wet. Alternatively, the microsuede polyester can be steam-cleaned thoroughly.

 Vinyl Upholstery

Vinyl car upholstery is waterproof and non-porous. Unlike polyester upholstery, it can be cleaned easily with a damp towel. For stubborn residue, you only need a cleaner that is specific to vinyl. If you want a happy medium between leather and cloth upholstery, then this type of material will prove ideal. Vinyl upholstery is sold at pocket-friendly prices and is more durable in comparison to the leather fabric.

 Faux Leather Upholstery

Faux leather upholstery is another popular choice among car owners who want to add a leather look to their automobile’s interior but at a pocket-friendly price. This material is waterproof, and the best part is that it demands a minimal effort to clean.

You need a feather duster to remove loose dirt and dust from the fabric. Take a clean cloth; dip it into the mixture of mild detergent and warm water. Wring out the excess water and wipe down the seat surface. Wipe off the soap using a damp cloth, and then wipe the wet surface using a dry cloth. You may need a faux leather-cleaning agent or a toothbrush to get rid of stubborn residue or stains. Use a vacuum cleaner to ensure better cleaning of the upholstery.

 Leather Upholstery

Leather material is a pricey car upholstery. As it is a luxury item, its overall cost is higher in comparison to other car upholsteries. Although it demands extra care and attention, the fact remains that it offers enhanced richness to the car’s interior. You cannot adopt inferior methods as far as its cleaning is concerned.

Clean your leather car upholstery with the right products and extra care. Using an inexpensive cleaning agent could strip natural oils from the fabric, causing it to crack and dry out.

First, you need to remove oils or dust from the surface with a clean cloth. Before applying upholstery conditioner, it is important to ensure that the leather is completely dry. Use liberal amounts of the conditioner and apply it evenly. Make sure you place your vehicle in the shade overnight so that the conditioner stays hidden from UV rays.

Suede Upholstery

Suede material is another pricey car upholstery option. As another luxury item, suede is marketed in a similar price region to leather. The overall price varies depending on the quality, just as leather. Suede adds a nice touch to any vehicle with its great look and feel. Many vehicles sold by European manufacturers offer suede options from factory such as door panels, headliner, seat inserts, and steering wheels.

Always clean suede car upholstery with suede approved cleaning products and extra care. Using an incorrect cleaning detergent could damage the color or feel of the suede. Suede cleaning products are available at many automotive retailers.

 Things to Consider for Better Maintenance of Car Upholstery

  • Avoid spilling food or beverages on the upholstery. Use a quality fabric cleaner to clean the upholstery surface. It is always wise to vacuum the fabric cloth upholstery in the first place to remove dust and dirt from the surface and then use a detergent solution for removing any odors or stains.
  • Always use a mixture of warm water and mild soap to clean the car upholstery, especially in the case of leather material. Remember, leather also needs to be conditioned. This conditioning helps maintain the richness and shine of the fabric. You can also use leather conditioning and cleaning kits for better results. Minimize direct contact with sunlight and heat with leather upholstery to keep its quality intact for a longer period.
  • Car upholstery should be cleaned twice a year or every other month.
  • Headliners demand low-maintenance. Avoid using a harsh cleaner for wiping the headliners. Since they are sponge-backed, it is not possible to get the cleaners out of the material. It is best to use a damp cloth for cleaning the car’s headliners.
  • It is advisable to use a canvas-specific product or mild detergents for cleaning canvas convertible tops. Also, avoid car washes as much as possible. Putting the convertible top through the washes isn’t wise at all.
  • It is a good idea to vacuum vinyl in order remove debris from the upholstery before using a damp cloth on the surface to remove the stains. Vinyl car upholstery doesn’t require additional cleaning since the material doesn’t allow stains to penetrate.

 Find the Right Upholstery for Your Car!

The design printed or woven into the fabric determines the overall look of the car. It is because of this that customized autos feature designer fabric and may also bear the logo of the clothing designers or the personal insignia of the car owner. If you want nothing less than the best, then look for an experienced and reputable car upholstery seller.

An expert makes sure to create a professional look. Ensure that the material makes a perfect match with the interior of your automobile. Deciding on the material is a major choice as the fabric should be expected to last for a long period of time with proper care.





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